Live Update

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Concessional customs duty on capital goods to be phased out, initial rate of 7.5% to be imposed

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says More than 350 exemptions on some agri products, chemicals, drugs, etc to be phased out

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says No change in income tax slab

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says To further electronics manufacturing, duty concessions given for high growth of electronics items

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Taxpayers deserve applause who have diligently contributed to fulfilling their responsibilities in improved tax & GST

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says GST revenues are buoyant despite the pandemic, gross GST collection for month of January are over Rs. 1.4 lakh crore. The highest since the inception of GST

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Duty concessions being given to promote electronics manufacturing, wearables and hearables devices included. Duty concessions to [parts of mobile phones including camera module etc.

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says So far, no mention of change in personal tax rates/slabs or increase in any exemption/deduction limits

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Concessional duty on import of capital goods to be phased out

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Tax exemption to start-ups extended to March 2023

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Gross GST collection for January 2022 at a record Rs 1.41 trillion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Existing tax benefits for startups, which were offered redemption of taxes for 3 consecutive years, to be extended by 1 more year

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Alternate minimum tax for cooperative societies down from 18.5% to 15%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Virtual digital assets to be taxed at 30% and 1 % TDS on transfer of virtual digital assets

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Tax deduction limit for state govt employees to NPS raised from 10% to 14%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Surcharge on Corporate tax pruned from 12% to 7%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Gift of cryptocurrencies to be taxed at receiver`s end

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says The government will tax income from digital asset transfers at 30%.

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Tax deduction limit to be reduced for central government employees from 18% to 15% in their contribution to NPAs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Existing tax benefits for Startups which were offered redemption of taxes for 3 consecutive years to be extended by 1 more year

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Reduce of surcharge of cooperative societies from 12% to 7% for those having income below 1 crore

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Reduced alternate minimum tax for cooperatives from 18.5% to 15%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Tax deduction limit increased to 14% on employers contribution to NPS account of state govt employees

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Tax deduction limit increased to 14% on employers contribution to NPS account of state govt employees

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says We have further simplified tax system. Introducing new updated return where people can file updated return within 2 years of the filed IT Return

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says We have further simplified tax system. Introducing new updated return where people can file updated return within 2 years of the filed IT Return

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Effective Capital Expenditure of the Central Govt is estimated at Rs 10.68 lakh crores in 2022-23, about 4.1% of GDP

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says To become sustainable & stronger we have set up a target to reach below 4.5% a fiscal deficit level

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Proposal will reduce surcharge on cooperative societies to 7%, for those whose income is between Rs 1 crore and Rs 10 crore

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Proposal will reduce surcharge on cooperative societies to 7%, for those whose income is between Rs 1 crore and Rs 10 crore

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Alternate Minimum Tax for cooperative societies to be cut to 15%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says A new provision to allow taxpayers to file an updated return. Updated return can be filed within 2 years from the end of the relevant assessment year

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Revised estimate of capital expenditure is Rs. 6.3 lakh crore

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Rs. 1 lakh crore to assist the states in catalysing the overall investment in economy. These 50 years interest free loans are over and above the normal borrowings to the states

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Capital expenditure is being stepped up to Rs 7.5 lakh crore

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Fiscal Deficit target set at 6.4% for FY23

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Digital currency to boost digital economy. Digital Rupee to be issued by RBI starting 2022-23

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Implementation of Ken Betwa Linking project at est. cost of Rs. 44,605 Cr. to be taken up with irrigation benefits to 9.0 lakh hectare farmland, drinking water to 62 lakh people, 103 MW hydropower. 27 MW solar power generation

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Additional loans for 13 mn MSMEs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Additional loans for 13 mn MSMEs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Defence R&D to be opened up for industry, start-ups

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says National Ropeways Development Programme to be taken up in PPP mode

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Aim to provide internet connection every village

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Digital rupee, using blockchain, to be launched by RBI in 2023

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Government back funds SIDBI fund of funds have provided scale capital creating a multiplier effect

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Sovereign Green Bonds to be issued in public sector projects to reduce carbon footprint initiatives in the economy

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Outlay for capital expenditure increased by 35.4% from previous year to 7.50 lakh crore in 2022-23

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Capital expenditure is being stepped up to Rs 7.5 lakh crore.

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says India to launch sovereign green bonds

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 5G spectrum auction to be conducted in 2022

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 68% of capital procurement budget in defence will be earmarked for domestic industry in 2022-23 (up from the 58% last fiscal)

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Contracts for laying optical fibre in villages to be awarded under BharatNet project under PPP in 2022-23

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says National Ropeways Development Programme to be taken up in PPP mode with the aim to improve connectivity, besides promoting Tourism.

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says A self reliant defence sector

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 5-7% biomass pellets will be co-fired in thermal power plants resulting in carbon dioxide savings of 38 mmt annually

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Financial support will be provided to farmers wanting to take up Agro-Forestry

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Rs. 19,500 crore marked for PLI for manufacturing of high efficiency module for polysilicon

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Our government is committed towards Atma Nirbhar Bharat in armed forces. 68% of capital procurement budget will be earmarked for domestic industry for 2022-23 up from 58% in 2021-22

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Green Energy & Clean Mobility systems have immense potential to modernise the country, make Indian industry more inclusive & generate employment for the youth

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 68% of R&D budget in Defence earmarked for Make In India

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says With 1486 union laws repealed, Ease of Doing Business 2.0 will be launched. We will follow the idea of trust based government

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says With the aim to take Digital Banking to every citizen. 75 digital banking units in 75 districts of the country will be launched

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022, 100% of 1.5 lakh post offices will come on core banking system to facilitate financial inclusion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says The coverage of Har Ghar Nal se Jal is 8.7 crores out of which 5.5 crore households were provided with tap water in the last 2 years itself

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Border villages with sparse population with limited connectivity will be covered under `New Vibrant Villages Programme`

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says To improve quality of life, Aspirational Districts have translated into success. 95% of 102 districts have made significant progress in key sectors

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says required spectrum auction will be conducted in 2022 for the rollout of 5G mobile services by private telecom providers

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Amendments for the Bankruptcy Code

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Amendments for the Bankruptcy Code

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022-23, 80 lakh households will be identified for the affordable housing scheme

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022-23, 80 lakh houses will be completed for identified beneficiaries of PM Awas Yojana; 60,000 houses will be identified as beneficiaries for PM Awas Yojana in rural & urban areas

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says A task force for the promotion of AVGC will be set up, aiming to employ youth in the visuals & animation sector

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Settlement of 75% of running bills in 10 days to be established. To reduce delays in payment, paperless ebills to be set up by the Ministries

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Private sector will be encouraged to create sustainable and innovative business models for battery and energy as a service, improving the efficiency in the EV ecosystem

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Battery Swapping Policy will be brought out & inter operational service will be formulated

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Centres of Excellence will be established with an outlay of 250 crore for urban sector development

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says For urban capacity building, modernization of building by laws, town planning schemes and transit oriented development will be implemented

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Rs 60,000 crore allocated for tapwater supply to 38 million households

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Rs 2.37 trillion worth of MSP direct payments to wheat and paddy farmers

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 100 year infra plans on the cards, blueprint on next 25 years in this budget

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Rs 2 trillion outay for MSMEs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says High-level committee for urban planning

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says An open platform for the National Digital Health Ecosystem will be rolled out

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Master Plan to revamp India`s roads and railways

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says E-passports, the issuance of E passports using embedded ship and futuristic technology will be rolled out in 2022-23 to enhance the convenience for the citizens in their overseas travel

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says ePassports will be rolled out in 2022-23 for convenience in overseas travel

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says With 1486 union laws repealed, Ease of Doing Business 2.0 will be launched. We will follow the idea of trust based government

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says With the aim to take Digital Banking to every citizen. 75 digital banking units in 75 districts of the country will be launched

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022, 100% of 1.5 lakh post offices will come on core banking system to facilitate financial inclusion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022, 100% of 1.5 lakh post offices will come on core banking system to facilitate financial inclusion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says The coverage of Har Ghar Nal se Jal is 8.7 crores out of which 5.5 crore households were provided with tap water in the last 2 years itself

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Border villages with sparse population with limited connectivity will be covered under `New Vibrant Villages Programme`

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says To improve quality of life, Aspirational Districts have translated into success. 95% of 102 districts have made significant progress in key sectors

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says This will be helpful especially for farmers and senior citizens in rural areas, enabling inter operability, and financial inclusion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 100% of 1.5 lakh post offices will come on the core banking system, enabling financial inclusion and access to accounts through net banking, mobile banking, ATMs, and also provide online transfer of funds between post office accounts and bank accounts

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says tates will be encouraged to revise syllabi of agricultural universities to meet needs of natural, zero-budget & organic farming, modern-day agriculture

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Announcement of Ken Betwa river linking project worth Rs 44,605 crore to be beneficial for capital goods players

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Data exchange among all-mode operators to be brought on Unified Logistics Interface Platform

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Pandemic has brought to the fore the issue of mental health. A national tele mental health programme will be launched

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says In 2022-23 80 lakh houses will be completed for identified beneficiaries of PM Awas Yojana

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 60,000 houses will be identified as beneficiaries for PM Awas Yojana in rural & urban areas

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says ECLGS scheme extended till March 2023; government eyes to create 60 lakh jobs in next 5 years

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Nari shakti is the Harbinger of our bright future

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says For women-led development, our government has launched: 1. Mission Shaki 2. Mission Vatsalya 3. Poshan 2.0

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says For mental health counselling, a National Tele Mental Health Program will be launched

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says A digital university will be developed to provide access to students for world-class quality education with ISTE Standards

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Rs 2.37 lakh crore worth of MSP direct payments to wheat and paddy farmers

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Skilling programs will be reoriented. For skilling, upskilling & reskilling of our youth, Digital DESH e-portal will be launched

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Hospitality services by the small & medium sector are yet to bounce back, therefore, the government has decided to extend the ECGL service for this sector by March 2023 with an increased cover of u20b950,000

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says India plans 100 cargo terminals in 3 years

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 400 new-generation Vande Bharat trains will be developed and manufactured in next 3 years

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says A boost for Railways under the Gati Shakti plan

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says ECLGS to be extended upto March 2023, guaranteed cover extended by another Rs 50,000 crore.

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says For farmers to adopt to natural farming, comprehensive package for participation of State governments & MSMEs to be introduced

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says For farmers to adopt to natural farming, comprehensive package for participation of State governments & MSMEs to be introduced

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says The implementation of the Ken-Betwa link worth Rs.44,605 crore will be taken up at providing irrigation of over 9 lakh hectares of farmers land providing irrigation, farming & livelihood facilities to farmers & local population

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Use of Kisan Drones for crop assessments, land records, spraying of insecticides is expected to drive a wave of technology in Agri & farming sector

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Natural farming will be promoted along Ganga corridor

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Use of Kisan Drones for crop assessments, land records, spraying of insecticides is expected to drive a wave of technology in Agri & farming sector

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Plan to promote oilseed cultivation to reduce import dependency

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Farm procurement value for FY23 to be Rs 2.37 trillion

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Railways to reach out to small farmers, MSMEs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 2000 km of network to be brought under KAVACH

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says LIC IPO expected shortly

Focus Areas of Budget : PM Gati Shakti, Inclusive Development, Productivity Enhancement, Sunrise Opportunities, Energy Transition, Climate Action, Financing of investments

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Budget seeks to set tone for the Amrit kaal of the next 25 years

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Budget seeks to set tone for the Amrit kaal of the next ,

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says PLI schemes to boost Atmanirbhar Bharat has received good response

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Gatishakti masterplan -- scope- to enhance multimodal communication through 7 engines

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says LIC IPO is expected shortly

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says NARCL has commenced its activities

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says Strategic transfer of ownership of Air India has been complete

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says GDP growth in 2021-23 expected to be 9.2%

FM Nirmala Sitharaman PLI in 14 sectors for aatmanirbhar bharat to create 6 million jobs

FM Nirmala Sitharaman Expresses empathy for those who had to bear brunt of pandemic, says Nirmala Sitharaman

FM Nirmala Sitharaman begins her budget speech by expressing empathy to those who suffered during the pandemic

Union Budget speech started by FM Nirmala Sitharaman

Budget 2022: Union Cabinet approves Budget 2022-23

Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman reaches Parliament ahead of Budget

Budget 2022-23 : Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman leaves from the Ministry of Finance

Budget 2022-23 : Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman will present an Union Budget at 11.00 AM today

Budget 2022-23 : Nirmala Sitharaman arrives at the Ministry of Finance

Soon Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman will present an inclusive budget

budget positive

  • Existing tax benefits for startups, which were offered redemption of taxes for 3 consecutive years, to be extended by 1 more year.
  • Existing tax benefits for startups, which were offered redemption of taxes for 3 consecutive years, to be extended by 1 more year.
  • Thematic based funding support, contribution to R&D, digital rupee on blockchain technology and application of new technology such as set up of battery swapping stations and use of drones for agriculture are significant measures by the government to promote new age technology emerging out of India.
  • To further promote electrification, government to come out with Battery Swapping Policy which also includes the concept of energy/battery as a service. This will help in developing requisite charging station ecosystem and is positive for the domestic EV space. Government plans to promote private sector to incur required capex in this domain.
  • Digital rupee, using blockchain, to be launched by RBI in 2023
  • FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says 68% of R&D budget in Defence earmarked for Make In India
  • FM Sitharaman said that required spectrum auction will be conducted in 2022 for the rollout of 5G mobile services by private telecom providers.
  • E-passports, the issuance of E passports using embedded ship and futuristic technology will be rolled out in 2022-23 to enhance the convenience for the citizens in their overseas travel.
  • FM Nirmalal Sitharaman Says Battery Swapping Policy will be brought out & inter operational service will be formulated
  • Rs. 48,000 Crores allotted for PM Awas Yojana
  • Announcement of Ken Betwa river linking project worth Rs 44,605 crore to be beneficial for capital goods players
  • Infra Stock Rally upto 7 % after FM announces Gati Shakti Plan
  • ECLGS scheme extended till March 2023; government eyes to create 60 lakh jobs in next 5 years
  • FM Nirmalal Sitharaman Says 400 new-generation Vande Bharat trains will be developed and manufactured in next 3 years
  • FM Nirmalal Sitharaman Says Rs 2.37 lakh crore worth of MSP direct payments to wheat and paddy farmers
  • FM Nirmalal Sitharaman Says India plans 100 cargo terminals in 3 years

budget negative

  • FM Nirmala Sitharaman Says The government will tax income from digital asset transfers at 30%.
  • Jewellery Stocks under pressure after proposal to increase Import duty on Gold
  • Goverment proposes additional Excise Duty on Petrol & Diesel. HPCL, IOC and BPCL stocks under pressure
  • FERTILIZER Stocks fall 1 - 2 % after FM emphasis on Zero Budget Farming



market Reaction

Applaud the Government`s conviction in digital banking - George Sam, Mindgate Solutions

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This along with taxation of digital assets received as gifts - Rishad Manekia, Kairos Capital

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Overall a good prudent and well-balanced budget - Prashant Joshi, Fintrust Advisors LLP

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The FM's support for digital banking initiatives continues to gain momentum - Mukund Rao, Muvin

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Welcome the Indian Government’s decision to use digital channels to increase access to finance - EarlySalary

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The government’s continuous focus on the digital payments - Dilip Modi, Spice Money

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The Budget is a well-marked one in many senses - Sasidhar, SUB-K

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Digital Engineering is the future and steps taken today will shape the country’s journey ahead on this - Amit Chadha, L&T Technology Services

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PLI scheme that the government runs to boost local manufacturing - Srikanth Chakkilam, Cigniti Technologies

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This budget is focussed on supporting growth through encouraging investments and encouraging entrepreneurs - Nilesh Shah, Kotak Mahindra Asset Management

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The budget also had positive announcements for the telecom industry - Mahendra Nahata, HFCL

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Union Budget announcement which provide indirect stimulus for all the key real estate Dhaval Ajmera, Ajmera Realty & Infra India Ltd

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Angel One simplifies the budget for GenZ and Millennials

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The focus on start-ups and fintech in this year's Budget is a fantastic step - Kavitha Subramanian, Upstox

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The commentary around RBI raising rates in its coming meeting would be that much more relevant - Motilal Oswal Financial Services

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Budget with a vision to transform India in the medium term - Vijay Chandok, ICICI Securities

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Union budget opts for conservatism, hoping for strong private sector revival - Mr. Dhananjay Sinha, JM Financial Institutional Securities

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Union Budget 2022-23  had special emphasis on Financial Inclusion, technology adoption and entrepreneurship - Raghvendra Nath, Ladderup Wealth Management

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Expert Opinion

Hindi news

Videos

Samsung finally rolls out Google Assistant for Galaxy Watch 4

JANTA KI AAWAZ

Post your reviews below and we shall repost it.
Priti shavant

The budget serves as a blueprint to reach tech-based, inclusive and futuristic growth potential of an aspirational India

Sarvesh Tidke

The Union Budget 2022-23 is forward-looking and focuses on a long-term plan for the country with digitization.

Sarvesh Kumar

The Union Budget 2022-23 is forward-looking and focuses on a long-term plan for the country with digitization

Guru singh

Digital banking and welcome the move to set up 75 Digital Banking Units in 75 districts in the country.

chandan kumar

5G Coming To India it is the best annoucement in this year budget.

Romi Singhania

Budget have all the ingredients to strengthen the economic growth

Kirtida Patel

Self-reliant budge focusing #AtmaNirbharBharat

Vaibhavi Shetty

Politically secured budget

Manasi Joshi

PM Awas Yojana will have impact on housing and related sector. Will increase standard of living in urban as well as rural areas.

Bijoy Ghosh

ECLGS will be a boon for MSMEs

Janvi Mehta

Battery swapping policy is going to help auto sector to grow

Adarsh KadamPatil

Digital currency will definietly help the overall growth

Gauri Borale

PM Gati Shakti National Master Plan is big move

Akshay Pardeshi

A growth supportive budget

Asmita Chavan

Changes in custom & import duties is positive

Amita Gupta

This year budget gave the major emphasis on information technology

Tejas Jogdand

Glad That India Is Going To Launch Its Own CryptoCurrency

Nilima Sheth

Infra focused budget

Ram Kumar

infrastructure and taxation fronts, the Union Budget 2022 has delivered along expected lines

Amit Kumar

Its A good Budget After Post Pandemic

State of economy

BudgetGyan

What is the Union Budget?

Like every family where its members plan their finances, income and expenditures; similarly Union Budget of India is the country's comprehensive annual financial statement. The Union Budget consists of a detailed account of the government’s finances, its revenues and expenditures.

What is a Finance Bill?

Before a piece of legislation is passed as a law by the Houses of parliament, it is called a Bill. A Finance Bill is about the country's finances ranging from taxes, expenditure to government's borrowings, revenues, etc. After the presentation of the annual budget, the finance bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha to implement financial proposals for the following year. The bill is largely related to changes in taxes and levies by the government.

What is Economic Survey ?

The Economic Survey is prepared under the guidance of Chief Economic Advisor and is presented in both the houses of Parliament, a day before the announcement of the Union Budget. The Economic Survey will have detailed information about the Indian economy over the past year. It also offers glimpses into the current state of the economy, and occasional insights into the economic outlook. Although the Constitution does not bind the government to present the Economic Survey, over the years, it has become common practice for every government to present the Economic Survey before the Union Budget.

What is Direct Tax?

Direct taxes are imposed on income and profits on an individual or organization. Some example of direct taxes is income tax, wealth tax etc. Every year everyone hopes their tax liability becomes low and government gives them relief and hence this is one of the key point for which people wait for annual union budget.

Why is customary Halwa Ceremony practice done in India?

The customary halwa ceremony, marks the process of printing of Budget documents, it is hosted by the Finance Ministry. All the key members of Finance ministry including Finance Minister are present at the ceremony. This ceremony is performed as a part of the Indian tradition of having something sweet before starting an important work

What is Plan and Non Plan Expenditure?

There are usually two components of expenditure - plan and non-plan expenditure. As the name suggests, plan expenditure are the budget estimates that are determined after discussion with all stakeholders or ministries.

Non-plan expenditure, on the other hand, mostly involves revenue expenditure, though it also included capital expenditure.These are expenses incurred by the government on interest payments,pension payments and salaries of government employees. Non-plan expenses constitute a major part of the government's budgetary expenses. Debt servicing, defence expenditure, and interest payments comprise the biggest expenses under the category.